These are some sources that provide useful information about testosterone and AFAB singing voices, but not all of them are grounded in a sound understanding of gender. For better information about transgender and enby experiences and terms, we recommend readers consult resources focused specifically on these topics, like those listed in the Transgender and Nonbinary Identities section below.

Adler, Richard K., Sandy Hirsch, and Michelle Mordaunt. (2012) Voice and Communication Therapy for the Transgender/Transsexual Client: A Comprehensive Clinical Guide. San Diego: Plural Publishing.

Constansis, Alexandros N. (2008) The Changing Female-To-Male (FTM) Voice. Radical Musicology, 3.

Constansis, Alexandros N. (2013) The Female-to-Male (FTM) Singing Voice and its Interaction with Queer Theory: Roles and Interdependence. Transposition, 3, p.1 – 22.

Damrose, Edward J. (2009) Quantifying the impact of androgen therapy on the female larynx. Auris Nasus Larynx, 36, p.110 – 112.  

Davies, Shelagh. (2016, April 14). Training the Transgender Singer: Finding the Voice Inside. What’s New, National Association of Teachers of Singing website.

Davies, Shelagh, Papp, Viktória G. & Antoni, Christella. (2015) Voice and Communication Change for Gender Nonconforming Individuals: Giving Voice to the Person Inside. International Journal of Transgenderism, 16(3), p.117-159.

King, A., Ashby, J. & Nelson, Christella (2001) Effects of Testosterone Replacement on a Male Professional Singer. Journal of Voice, 15(4), p.553-557.

Manternach, Brian, Michael Chipman, Ruth Rainero, and Caitlin Stave. (2017) The Independent Teacher: Teaching Transgender Singers. Part 1: The Voice Teachers’ Perspectives. Journal of Singing 74(1), p.83-88.

Manternach, Brian. (2017) The Independent Teacher: Teaching Transgender Singers. Part 2: The Singers’ Perspectives. Journal of Singing 74(2), p.209-214.  

Sims, Loraine. (2017) Teaching Lucas: A Transgender Student’s Vocal Journey from Soprano to Tenor. Journal of Singing 73(4), p.367 – 375.


These websites are a good place to get started learning about transgender and nonbinary identities.

About Transgender People Resource Hub – National Centre for Transgender Equality    

Nonbinary 101 – Seattle Nonbinary Collective    

Transgender 101: A Guide to Gender and Identity to Help You Keep Up with the ConversationEveryday Feminism, by Sam Dylan Finch (August 10, 2016) 

Transgender FAQGLAAD   


Making Your Chorus Welcoming for Transgender Singers – An article Ari wrote for Chorus America’s magazine, “The Voice”.


Ari’s blogs at . These three posts are especially relevant to their voice transition:

To T or Not To T? (September 11, 2016) – This essay was written before Ari began taking testosterone, in it they reflect on their gender, their voice, what singing means to them, and the complex decision in front of them.

A Farewell to Altos (and Sopranos) (May 16, 2017)- This essay was written eight months after Ari started taking testosterone. Their voice had begun to change and here they explore some of their feelings of loss and grief associated with that change.

Singing in the Cracks (April 21, 2018) – This essay gives a detailed description of how Ari’s voice has changed in the first 15 months of testosterone therapy and reflects on the emotional ups and downs of singing through these changes. It draws parallels between having both a voice and a gender identity that do not fit into existing categories.